Benzene C6H6

Benzene C6H6

Benzene C6H6, specifically, is a chemical that can be produced naturally, since it is a component of crude oil, just as it can be generated by gas emissions from volcanoes and forest fires. In the same way, Benzene C6H6 can be produced through artificial processes, being used mainly as a solvent in the chemical industry and the pharmaceutical industry, and as an initial and intermediate product in the synthesis of other substances.

Benzene, also known as benzol, is a colourless, sweet-smelling liquid that quickly evaporates into the air and is only slightly soluble in water. It is highly flammable. Most people can begin to smell benzene in the air at concentrations of 191,660 g/m 3 (60 ppm [parts of benzene per million parts of air]) and recognize it as benzene when the concentration reaches 319,430. μg/m 3 (100 ppm). It is found in air, water, and soil, and comes from both industrial and natural sources.

This use is currently discouraged due to its high toxicity and carcinogenicity. Current uses are as a raw material in the synthesis of chemical substances and the manufacture of plastics, resins, and detergents. We are all exposed to small amounts of benzene daily, outdoors, at work, and home. Exposure in the population occurs mainly through the inhalation of air containing benzene.

People who live in urban or industrial areas are generally exposed to higher levels than those who live in rural areas. Levels in the home are generally higher than outdoors. It can enter your body through your lungs, digestive tract, and skin.

Some industries use Benzene to make other chemicals used to make plastics, resins, nylon, and other synthetic fibres. Benzene is also used to make certain types of rubber, lubricants, dyes, detergents, medicines, and pesticides. Benzene is also a natural component of petroleum, gasoline, and cigarette smoke.

Humans exposed to Benzene C6H6

Although after the eruption of a volcano or through contaminated products, such as shampoos, a person may be exposed to C6H6 (Benzene), the truth is that there are other possible and more common ways of being exposed to this harmful substance.

This is the case of the smoke from the cigarettes expelled by smokers, a common source of C6H6 (Benzene). In fact, among smokers, 90% of Benzene exposures come from this habit. Likewise, Benzene can be found in glues, adhesives, cleaning products and paint strippers, among other things, although this exposure is less and less common. The same is true for people who work in the industry that produces or uses C6H6 (Benzene).

Benzene C6H6
Benzene C6H6

Vapours (or gases) from products that contain C6H6 (Benzene), such as glues, paints, furniture polish, and detergents, can also be sources of C6H6 (Benzene). The air around hazardous waste sites or gas stations may have higher levels of C6H6 (Benzene). In the air, it reacts with other chemicals and breaks down in a few days.

Benzene in the air can be washed to the ground by rain or snow. It breaks down more slowly in water and soil and can pass through soil to groundwater. Benzene is a widely used chemical that originates from both natural processes and human activities.

What effects does benzene have on the body?

Several factors will determine whether exposure to benzene will produce adverse effects, as well as the type and severity. These factors include the amount of benzene you were exposed to and the duration of the exposure.

Brief exposure (5 to 10 minutes) to very high levels in air (31,943,000 to 63,886,000 μg/m 3 [10,000-20,000 ppm]) can cause death. Lower levels (2,236,000 to 9,583,000 μg/m 3 [700-3,000 ppm]) can cause lethargy, dizziness, rapid heartbeat, headache, tremors, confusion, and loss of consciousness. In most cases, the effects will wear off when the exposure ends and the person begins to breathe fresh air.

Benzene produces alterations in the blood. People who breathe it for long periods can suffer damage to the tissues that make blood cells, especially the bone marrow. These effects can interrupt the production of blood elements and cause a decrease in some important components of the blood.

Decreasing the quantity of red blood cells can lead to anaemia. The reduction of other blood components can cause bleeding. Excessive exposure to benzene can be detrimental to the immune system, increasing the chances of getting infections and possibly lowering the body’s defences against cancer.

The first chronic toxicological effects of benzene exposure occur in the hematopoietic system. Neurological and reproductive toxic effects occur at slightly higher concentrations. Prolonged exposure may cause cancer of the blood-producing organs (leukaemia). Its exposure has been associated with the development of a special type of leukaemia called acute myeloid leukaemia.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that benzene is carcinogenic to humans. The results indicate that benzene is a multi-organ carcinogen. Exposure may be harmful to sexual organs. Some women who inhaled high levels at work for months had irregular menstrual cycles and decreased ovarian size.

Inhalation of Benzene may cause drowsiness, dizziness, and unconsciousness. Prolonged exposure produces effects on the bone marrow and can cause anaemia and leukaemia. You must understand this information as this substance can be harmful.

Inhaling very high levels of Benzene can be fatal. Inhaling high levels can cause drowsiness, dizziness, rapid heart rate, headache, tremors, confusion, and loss of consciousness. Ingestion of food or drink containing high levels of Benzene can cause vomiting, stomach irritation, dizziness, drowsiness, seizures, rapid heartbeat, and death.

Some women who breathed high levels of Benzene for several months experienced irregular periods and decreased ovarian size, but it is not known for sure whether Benzene caused these effects. It is not known that Benzene affects fertility in men.

How likely is benzene to cause cancer?

Prolonged exposure to high levels of Benzene in the air can cause leukaemia, especially acute myeloid leukaemia, often known as AML. This is a cancer of the organs that make blood cells. However, being an important basic material, the risks of Benzene in the industry cannot always be avoided. Therefore, the limits for exposure to Benzene at work are set at a strict, low level.

Accurate measurement with dedicated Benzene detectors and regular Benzene exposure testing is crucial to the safety of industrial workers. Benzene can affect children in the same way as adults. We do not know if children are more susceptible than adults to Benzene toxicity.

Benzene C6H6
Benzene C6H6

Medical test exposure to benzene

Several tests can determine if you have been exposed to C6H6 (Benzene). There is a test to measure the amount of Benzene C6H6 in your breath. This test should be done shortly after exposure. Benzene C6H6 in the blood can also be measured; however, because Benzene C6H6 clears quickly from the blood, this test is only good for checking for recent exposures.

In the body, Benzene C6H6 is broken down into products called metabolites. Some metabolites can be measured in the urine. The metabolite S-phenyl mercapturic acid in urine is a highly sensitive index of Benzene exposure. However, this test must be done shortly after exposure and does not tell you for sure how much Benzene you have been exposed to because metabolites may have been generated from other sources.

Benzene Exposure Limits

Because Benzene is a dangerous carcinogen, it is subject to very strict exposure limits in the workplace. These limits have been continually lowered, which often has far-reaching consequences for the industry and poses special challenges. Companies have to demonstrate that they maintain these low limits for exposure to Benzene and, in the long term, document this compliance. An innovative risk acceptance concept helps to manage these risks.

Benzene C6H6
Benzene C6H6

Benzene C6H6 is created by natural and man-made processes. According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), this chemical, which can trick cells in the body into not working properly, is also a natural part of petroleum, crude oil, gasoline and cigarette smoke.

However, the FDA allowed the “temporary” use of Benzene in liquid hand sanitisers during the pandemic, setting the upper limit at 2 parts per million. The US Environmental Protection Agency has set a much lower limit of 5 parts per billion (ppb) for Benzene exposure in drinking water. The agency has also set a “goal of 0 ppb for Benzene in drinking water and in waters such as rivers and lakes because Benzene can cause leukaemia.”

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The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set a limit of one part of Benzene per million parts of work air (1 ppm) during an 8-hour workday, 40-hour workweek, according to CDC.

Benzene poisoning causes

Benzene C6H6 is a clear, petroleum-based liquid chemical that has a sweet odour. Benzene poisoning occurs when someone swallows, inhales, or touches the chemical. It is part of the class of compounds called hydrocarbons. The exposure of humans to hydrocarbons is a frequent problem.

This article is for information only. DO NOT use to treat or manage actual toxicant exposure. If you or someone you are with is exposed, call the local emergency number, or you can contact your local poison control centre.

Benzene can be harmful if swallowed, inhaled, or touched. People can be exposed to Benzene in factories, refineries, and other industrial settings. Benzene can be found in:

  • Additives for gasoline and diesel fuel
  • Multiple industrial solvents
  • Various paint, lacquer and varnish removers
  • Other products may also contain C6H6 (Benzene).

Benzene poisoning symptoms

Severity depends on the amount of Benzene ingested and how quickly treatment was received. The faster you get medical help, the better the chance of recovery. Benzene is very toxic.

  • Blurry vision
  • Burning sensation in the nose and throat
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • rapid heartbeat
  • shock and fainting
  • Shallow and rapid breathing
  • Chest tightness
  • dizziness
  • Drowsiness
  • Nervousness
  • seizures
  • Euphoria (feeling drunk)
  • Headache
  • Gait abnormalities
  • tremors
  • loss of consciousness
  • Weakness
  • pale skin
  • small red spots on the skin
  • loss of appetite
  • nausea and vomiting

Poisoning can quickly cause death. However, deaths have occurred up to 3 days after a poisoning. This happens because:

  • Permanent brain damage occurs
  • the heart stops
  • Lungs stop working

People regularly exposed to low levels of Benzene can also get sick. The most common problems are blood diseases such as:

  • Leukemia
  • Lymphoma
  • Severe anaemia

Conclusion Benzene C6H6

People who work with Benzene products should do so only in well-ventilated areas. They must wear protective gloves, respirators and glasses. Seek medical help immediately.  If Benzene has come into contact with the skin or eyes, rinse with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes.

If the person swallowed the C6H6 (Benzene), give them water or milk right away. If the person inhaled the C6H6 (Benzene), move them to fresh air immediately. Exposure to Benzene can be reduced by limiting contact with gasoline and cigarette smoke. Families should not smoke in the home, indoors, or around children.

Benzene C6H6
Benzene C6H6



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